Dizygotic Twins (non-identical) : Indicated by two diagonal vertical lines originating from the same point. Monozygotic twins (identical): Indicated by two diagonal vertical lines originating from the same point. No children: A vertical line with 2 hash marks at the end.

## How do you show twins on a pedigree?

If twins are identical, you should see **a horizontal line connecting the two diagonal lines that lead down to the gender symbols**. Some pedigree charts instead display a horizontal line connecting the two gender symbols to create a triangle shape. Relationships in a pedigree are shown as a series of lines.

## What does a circle represent in a pedigree?

In a pedigree, a circle represents **a female**, and a square represents a male. A filled-in circle or square shows that the individual has the trait being studied. The horizontal line that connects a circle and a square represents a marriage.

## What’s the difference between half siblings and stepsiblings?

A step-sibling is related to you purely on the basis that one of your parents has married someone else who already has children. The children of the two earlier relationships are step-siblings and there **is no biological link whatsoever**. A half-sibling, meanwhile, shares a parent with you.

## Are pedigrees inbred?

Inbreeding in pedigree dogs arises because certain dogs, prized for exhibiting the characteristics desirable for that breed, are used to father many litters of puppies. … Over generations, more and more dogs across a particular pedigree are related to one another and the chances of relatives mating increase.

## How do you calculate inbreeding?

If a child is inbred through more than one line of descent, the total coefficient of inbreeding is **the sum of each of the separate coefficients**. For example, first cousins are related through two grandparents. Thus, the inbreeding coefficient for the offspring of first cousins is F = (½)^{5} + (½)^{5} = (½)^{4} = 1/16.